What is Mathematics: Gödel's Theorem and Around
by Karlis Podnieks
Publisher: University of Latvia 2013
Number of pages: 239
Hyper-textbook for students in mathematical logic and foundations of mathematics. Contents: Platonism, intuition and the nature of mathematics; Axiomatic Set Theory; First Order Arithmetic; Hilbert's Tenth Problem; Incompleteness Theorems; Around Goedel's Theorem.
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by Stefan Bilaniuk
An introduction to mathematical logic for undergraduates. It supplies definitions, statements of results, and problems, along with some explanations, examples, and hints. The idea is to learn the material by solving the problems.
by Nick Bezhanishvili, Dick de Jongh - Universiteit van Amsterdam
In this course we give an introduction to intuitionistic logic. We concentrate on the propositional calculus mostly, make some minor excursions to the predicate calculus and to the use of intuitionistic logic in intuitionistic formal systems.
by Johan van Benthem - CSLI
An examination of the role of partial information - with illustrations drawn from different branches of Intensional Logic - and various influences stemming from current theories of the semantics of natural language, involving generalized quantifiers.
An undergraduate college level textbook covering first order predicate logic with identity but omitting metalogical proofs. The first rules of formal logic were written over 2300 years ago by Aristotle and are still vital.