Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals
by Immanuel Kant
Number of pages: 396
How should human beings behave toward one another? How must we behave? One of the most influential thinkers of the Western civilization, a man who profoundly shaped the mind-set of the modern world, Immanuel Kant developed his "Categorical Imperative" as a philosophical proof of the "Golden Rule," and in this 1873 essay, he elaborates upon and defends his understanding of the logical underpinnings of all human morality.
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by David Hume - Project Gutenberg
Useful far beyond the small circle of scholarly experts. The Treatise has a fair claim to be the most important philosophical text ever written in English. After more than 250 years, Hume is still at the front line of philosophical inquiry.
by David Heyd - University of California Press
Unprecedented advances in medicine, genetic engineering, and demographic forecasting raise new questions that strain the categories and assumptions of traditional ethical theories. Heyd's approach resolves many paradoxes in intergenerational justice.
by Immanuel Kant
If there exists on any subject a philosophy (a system of rational knowledge based on concepts), then there must also be for this philosophy a system of pure rational concepts, independent of any condition of intuition, in other words, a metaphysics.
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Spinoza uses the methods of Euclid to describe a single entity, properly called both 'God' and 'Nature'. From this follow the identity of mind and body, the necessary causation of events and actions, and the illusory nature of free will.