Publisher: Wikibooks 2009
An undergraduate college level textbook covering first order predicate logic with identity but omitting metalogical proofs. Formal Logic is a study of inference with purely formal content. The first rules of formal logic were written over 2300 years ago by Aristotle and are still vital to many modern disciplines like Linguistics and Computer Science.
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by Joseph Y. Halpern - The MIT Press
In this book, Joseph Halpern explores actual causality, and such related notions as degree of responsibility, degree of blame, and causal explanation. The goal is to arrive at a definition of causality that matches our natural language usage.
by Arnold W. Miller - arXiv
This is a set of questions written for a course in Mathematical Logic. Topics covered are: propositional logic; axioms of ZFC; wellorderings and equivalents of AC; ordinal and cardinal arithmetic; first order logic, and the compactness theorem; etc.
by H. Andreka, I. Nemeti, I. Sain
Part I of the book studies algebras which are relevant to logic. Part II deals with the methodology of solving logic problems by (i) translating them to algebra, (ii) solving the algebraic problem, and (iii) translating the result back to logic.
by Robert Goldblatt - Center for the Study of Language
Sets out the basic theory of normal modal and temporal propositional logics, applies this theory to logics of discrete, dense, and continuous time, to the temporal logic of henceforth, next, and until, and to the dynamic logic of regular programs.