Publisher: Wikipedia 2014
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays associated with extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies. They are the brightest electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe. Bursts can last from ten milliseconds to several minutes.
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by Alison L. Coil - arXiv
On large scales the Universe displays coherent structure, with galaxies residing in groups and clusters, which lie at the intersections of long filaments of galaxies. Vast regions of relatively empty space span the volume between these structures.
by Bing Zhang, Peter Meszaros - arXiv
The cosmological gamma-ray burst phenomenon is reviewed. The broad observational facts and empirical relations of the GRB prompt emission and afterglow are outlined. A well-tested fireball shock model is introduced in a pedagogical manner.
by Richard S. Ellis - arXiv
In these lectures aimed for non-specialists, the author reviews progress in understanding how galaxies form and evolve. The first results presented here provide important guidance on how we will use more powerful future facilities.
by Regina Schulte-Ladbeck, at al. - Hindawi Publishing
Dwarf galaxies provide opportunities for drawing inferences about the processes in the early universe by observing our Local Group and its vicinity. This issue is a snapshot of the current state of the art of dwarf-galaxy cosmology.