Publisher: Wikipedia 2014
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays associated with extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies. They are the brightest electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe. Bursts can last from ten milliseconds to several minutes.
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by Jean-Paul Kneib, Priyamvada Natarajan - arXiv
Clusters of galaxies are the most recently assembled, massive, bound structures in the Universe. Given their masses, clusters strongly deform space-time in their vicinity. Clusters act as the most powerful gravitational lenses in the Universe.
by A. Biviano - arXiv
This is a review of the properties of galaxy systems as determined from optical and infrared measurements. Covered topics are: clusters identification, global cluster properties and their scaling relations, cluster internal structure, etc.
by Abraham Loeb - arXiv
The first dwarf galaxies, which constitute the building blocks of the collapsed objects we find today, had formed hundreds of millions of years after the big bang. This review describes the early growth of their small-amplitude seed fluctuations.
by Alison L. Coil - arXiv
On large scales the Universe displays coherent structure, with galaxies residing in groups and clusters, which lie at the intersections of long filaments of galaxies. Vast regions of relatively empty space span the volume between these structures.