Logic For Everyone
by Robert A. Herrmann
Number of pages: 124
This is an elementary book in Mathematical Logic that also covers all of the basic material in the propositional and predicate calculus. It is the result of the U. S. Naval Academy Mathematical Logic Course Project. Both the propositional and predicate calculus are presented in a unique manner. Enough material is covered so that certain topics in elementary model theory can be included and all mathematical proofs are of the most elementary nature requiring no specialized mathematical procedures. The propositional calculus is expanded considerably and many of the proof methods are used to establish the predicate calculus results. Consequnce operators are also introduced.
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by Bertrand Russell - University of Massachusetts Amherst
A very accessible mathematical classic. It sets forth in elementary form the logical definition of number, the analysis of the notion of order, the modern doctrine of the infinite, and the theory of descriptions and classes as symbolic fictions.
by Joseph Y. Halpern - The MIT Press
In this book, Joseph Halpern explores actual causality, and such related notions as degree of responsibility, degree of blame, and causal explanation. The goal is to arrive at a definition of causality that matches our natural language usage.
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An introduction to mathematical logic for undergraduates. It supplies definitions, statements of results, and problems, along with some explanations, examples, and hints. The idea is to learn the material by solving the problems.